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Plural[ edit ] While Afrikaans uses -e as the plural of most nouns, similar to Dutch -en, it also uses the -s ending where Dutch would use -en, hence the plural of seun "son" being seuns, in contrast to Dutch, in which the plural of zoon is zonen, zoons being used as a plural in eighteenth century Dutch.
Similarly, the resemblance of Afrikaans verbs like lees "to read", Dutch lezen to the first person singular and verbs like gaan "to go" to infinitive forms in Dutch means that julle lees "you [plural] read" or ek gaan "I go" would be understood by Dutch speakers more readily than jullie lezen or ik ga would be by Afrikaans speakers.
All other verbs use the existing form turbosmart ultra gate 38mm external wastegate hookup the past participle.
By contrast, the Dutch term rijbewijs, translates as "driving certificate", but while ry is used in Afrikaans to mean "driving", bewys means "evidence" or "proof".
Demonstrative pronouns[ edit ] The word die is used in Afrikaans as a definite exceptie van dating betekenis achternaam, but in Dutch, it is used as a demonstrative pronoun meaning "that" or "those", or as a relative pronoun meaning "who", "which" or "that", for which Afrikaans would use wat; compare Afrikaans die man wat weet "the man who knows" with Dutch de man die weet.
Afrikaans similarly uses Ysland,  which was also used in 18th century Dutch. Omitting of subordinate conjunctions[ edit ] In Afrikaans, as in English, it is possible to omit the subordinate conjunction dat "that" ; for example, the phrase "I believe [that] she has done it" can be translated into Afrikaans as either ek glo dat sy dit gedoen het or ek glo sy het dit gedoen note the change in position of the auxiliary verb hetbut in Dutch it is not possible to do so, hence the sentence would be translated as ik geloof dat ze het gedaan heeft.
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For example, the word for "magistrate" in Afrikaans, landdros, comes from the Dutch term landdrosta legacy of the old court system of the Dutch Cape Colony which survived its abolition and replacement by magistrate's courts under British rulebut the term is no longer officially used in the Netherlands, where the Latin-derived term magistraat is exceptie van dating betekenis achternaam instead.
For example, "to pay" is betaal and "I have paid" is "ek het betaal", while "to translate" is "vertaal" and "he has translated" is hy het vertaal; Dutch would use betaald from betalen and vertaald from vertalen respectively.
French and Latin influence[ edit ] While Dutch, like English, increasingly borrowed vocabulary from Latin or FrenchAfrikaans resisted such borrowing and instead favoured older Germanic equivalents, albeit with some exceptions; one of these is the Afrikaans word for "hospital", hospitaal, which, while understood in Dutch, is less widely used than ziekenhuis literally "sick house".
Conversely, in the Western Capeit is common to hear it realised as [tji]. Pronouns in Afrikaans, whether subjectsobjects or possessiveshave only one form, derived from the Dutch marked forms; compare my in Afrikaans, which can be used either as the object "me" or the possessive "my", with Dutch marked forms mij and mijn, the unmarked forms being me for "me" and m'n for "my" respectively.
Unmarked and marked forms of words[ edit ] As Afrikaans no longer has unmarked and marked forms of words, instead using words derived from the marked forms in Dutch, the Afrikaans words for "there" and "now", daar and nou, are more intelligible to speakers of Dutch than the unmarked Dutch forms er and nu are to Afrikaans speakers.
Words of Dutch and non-Dutch origin[ edit ] In addition, while Afrikaans may use words of non-Dutch origin unintelligible to Dutch speakers such as those derived from Malay like baie, meaning "very" or "much", and amper meaning "almost" or "nearly"their Dutch equivalents, or cognates, are also used in Afrikaans, and would therefore be more intelligible to Afrikaans speakers.
It also lacks the distinction between the subject and object form for plural personal pronouns ; the first person plural pronoun in Afrikaans differs markedly from Dutch, with ons meaning either "we" or "us", in contrast to Dutch we and wij, hence "we go to the beach" is ons gaan na die strand as opposed to we gaan naar het strand.
In Afrikaans, as in Dutch, oor also means "ear". Genitive[ edit ] As Afrikaans has no genitive forms of nouns, the official titles of most countries include the word van, although this was considered optional, hence Republiek van Malta as opposed to Republiek Malta as in Dutch although Republiek van Suid-Afrika was previously considered an anglicism.
Owing to the exposure of Afrikaans speakers to English, Dutch words like computer, lift and appartement are more readily understood by them than Afrikaans equivalents like rekenaar, hysbak and woonstel are by Dutch speakers.
Purisms and loan translations[ edit ] As the influence of English was perceived as a threat to Afrikaans, there was a trend to coin purisms rather than to borrow from English or international vocabulary; whereas the word for "computer" in Dutch is simply computer, in Afrikaans it is rekenaar, from reken, meaning "to count".
The past participle is usually regularly formed by adding the prefix ge- to the verb, hence gedoen "done" is formed from doen in Afrikaans, although Dutch gedaan survives in Afrikaans as welgedaan!
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Also in Dutch, final -n is often deleted after a schwa, but the occurrence and frequency of this phenomenon varies between speakers, and it is not recognised in spelling. Similar constructions can be found in French Je ne parle pas anglais but also in West Flemish k en klappe geen Engels as well as in other Dutch dialects in the southern part of Holland Ik praat geen Engels nie Adjective inflections[ edit ] Like Dutch, adjectives in Afrikaans are generally inflected with a number of exceptions in the attributive position when preceding the noun and not in the predicative.
Verb forms[ edit ] The simplification of verbs in Afrikaans, with almost all verbs being regular and the absence of the simple past tense, means that while the phrase ek het gedink "I have thought" or "I thought" would be understood by Dutch speakers as "I have thought", the Dutch phrases ik heb gedacht and ik dacht would not be as readily understood by speakers of Afrikaans.
Afrikaans, like Dutch, has possessive pronouns to indicate ownership, hence joune and jouwe, although Afrikaans omits the use of the definite article, hence is dit jou glas of syne?
The spelling of name of the town, which means iron fountain, is based on the old Dutch word for iron, yzer. However, in both languages, a member of a council or councillor is raadslid. Verb tenses[ edit ] Afrikaans has dropped the simple past tense for all but eight verbs, of which five are modalsthe three others being rarely used; instead it uses either the present perfect or the present tense, depending on context, the latter being used as the historical present.
Similarly, the third person plural pronoun in Afrikaans is hulle, used to mean "they" or "them", in contrast to Dutch in which ze and zij are used as plural pronouns, hence "they are the best" is hulle is die beste as opposed to ze zijn de beste, although hullie is encountered in Dutch dialects, particularly in North Brabant and North and South Holland.
Compare nationaal "national" with nasionaal. For example, although baie, from banyak  has no cognate in Dutch, heel as in heel goed "very good" is used in Afrikaans as well as Dutch.
Unlike Dutch, which, like English, has a continuous tense using the verb zijn "to be" with aan het "on the" and the infinitive, Afrikaans has no direct equivalent. The adjectives saggies and zachtjes, both meaning "softly", are diminutives of Afrikaans sag and Dutch zacht respectively.
Unlike Dutch, Afrikaans has no grammatical genderand therefore only has one form of the definite article die, while standard Dutch has two de for both masculine and feminine nouns and het for neuter ones and Dutch dialects in the Southern Netherlands have a third, den, used for masculine nouns.
A similar phonetic evolution can be found in the Northern Netherlands. For example, nou is daar, meaning "now there is" in Afrikaans,  is sometimes encountered in Dutch  although nou is used more colloquially for emphasis, in the sense of the English "well".
Similarly, Dutch words such as favoriet "favourite"film, and station are intelligible to Afrikaans speakers on account of their resemblance to their English equivalents, whereas the Afrikaans gunsteling, rolprent, and stasie cognate with Dutch statiewhile intelligible to Dutch speakers, would be considered old-fashioned.
The same merger is present though in the areas around Amsterdam, where all voiced consonants merged with the voiceless ones, pronounced as the latter ones.
The verb "to be" in Afrikaans is wees from Dutch wezen ; the Dutch zijn only survives in Afrikaans in the form of the subjunctive sy, as in God sy met u "God be with you".
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Other spelling differences[ edit ] Unlike Dutch, the names of months in Afrikaans are capitalised, hence 2 June would be written as 2 Junie whereas in Dutch, it would be written as 2 juni They point to many places on the web where, for instance, a phrase such as "is hard aan die werk" is used, meaning "is working hard".
In Afrikaans, Eerste-Minister "first minister" was the official title of the Prime Minister of South Africa  before the post was abolished in and is still the official Dutch title of the Prime Minister of Belgium but in the Netherlands, the term premier is used as a generic term for a prime minister or equivalent office holder, the official title of the Prime Minister of the Netherlands being minister-president.
However, some aspects of Afrikaans orthography also resemble those of older forms of Dutch, for example, whereas "God be with you" in modern Dutch would be God zij met u, God sy met u, used in Afrikaans, was also used in 18th century Dutch.
Consequently, the sentence ek het die boek vir haar gegee in Afrikaans can be translated into Dutch as ik heb het boek aan haar gegeven "I have given the book to her" ik gaf het boek aan haar "I gave the book to her" or ik had het boek aan haar gegeven "I had given the book to her".
An example is prijs pricewhich is spelt prys in Afrikaans. It has also lost the pluperfect, with the present perfect being used instead. However, "I am reading", which in Dutch is ik ben aan het lezen, may be expressed periphrastically in Afrikaans as ek is besig om te lees literally "I am busy to read" or "I am busy reading".
Phonetically induced spelling differences[ edit ] Simplification of consonant clusters[ edit ] Afrikaans has frequently simplified consonant clusters in final position that are still present in Dutch, although they are used in inflected forms of adjectives, for example, bes "best" in Afrikaans is still inflected as beste, as in Dutch, hence beste man ooit best man ever is correct in both languages.
Similarly, van or "of" is also omitted in Afrikaans; compare dit is my fiets, waar is joune?
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